BTS IRIS – SUJET TYPE No 2
(sujet fabriqué par Michael Grant)
Durée : 2 h - Dictionnaire bilingue autorisé
The Adaptive House, Boulder, Colorado
1 [In contrast to standard computerized homes that can be programmed to perform various functions, the crux of our project is to develop a home that essentially programs itself by observing the lifestyle and desires of the inhabitants, and learning to anticipate and accommodate their needs. The system we have developed controls basic residential comfort systems – HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), water heater, and interior lighting.]
2 The system monitors the environment, observes the actions taken by occupants (eg, turning up the thermostat, turning on a particular configuration of lights), and it attempts to infer patterns in the environment that predict these actions. If the actions can be reliably anticipated, the system can perform the actions automatically, freeing the occupants from manual control of the home. A secondary consideration of the system is to conserve energy resources, when possible.
3 We have constructed a prototype system in an actual residence. The home laboratory is equipped with an array of over 75 sensors which provide information about the environmental conditions we are monitoring – temperature, ambient light levels, sound, motion, door and window openings – and actuators to control the furnace, space heater, lighting units, and ceiling fans.
4 Control systems in the residence are based on neural network reinforcement learning and prediction techniques. Neural networks are artificial learning devices inspired by the workings of the human brain. These networks are made up of hundreds or thousands of simple neuron-like processing units, which, through their interactions, achieve complex behaviors, and have the ability to learn from experience.
5 Some examples of what the system can or eventually will do include: predicting when the occupants will return home and determining when to start heating the house so that a comfortable temperature is reached by the time the occupants arrive; detecting statistical patterns of water usage, such that hot water is seldom if ever used in the middle of the day on weekdays, allowing the water heater to shut off at those times; inferring where the occupant is and in what activities the occupant is engaged – perhaps he is reading at the kitchen table – and controlling lighting patterns and intensities accordingly, even anticipating which rooms are about to be entered and turning on the lights before the room becomes occupied.
6 By inferring occupancy and usage patterns in the home, the system can make life more comfortable and conserve energy at the same time.
Mike Mozer (http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~mozer/house/)
1 - COMPREHENSION (10 points)
2 - TRANSLATION - Translate into French the passage from "In contrast to..." to "... an interior lighting." (Paragraph 1, between square brackets) (5 points)
3 - EXPRESSION -
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