Manufacturing processes

Source : Kris De Decker, How Sustainable is Digital Fabrication?, Low-Tech Magazine, March 24, 2014


1  Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups: primary and secondary. The former -- such as forging and casting -- provide basic shape and size to the material. Secondary processes provide the final shape and size with tighter control on dimension and surface characteristics. This second group is performed by so called "machine tools".

Machine tools form the basis of precision manufacturing. As such they are indispensable for the production of nearly all modern technology, be it cars, planes, household appliances, computers, solar panels, wind turbines, or other machine tools. They are so fundamental to manufacturing that the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) defines "industrialisation" as the capacity to produce machine tools.

Machine tools are stationary operating machines that perform the geometric shaping of workpieces. They are mostly subtractive technologies, dealing with any process in which material is removed gradually from a workpiece. There is a great diversity in specialized machine tools, but common examples are sawing and cutting machines, drilling machines, grinding machines, turning machines (lathes) and milling machines.

4  Machine tools can process different materials, but today most of them are used for the shaping of metal parts. Milling machines have become the most common metal shaping tools in the mechanical manufacturing industry. Milling is a process of cutting away material by feeding a workpiece past a rotating cutting tool. A milling machine operates like a human sculptor. It can have grinding, cutting and polishing heads.

Lathes or turning machines are similar to milling machines but they are used to shape cylindrical workpieces. In a milling machine the workpiece remains (relatively) stationary while material is removed by moving tools heads. In a lathe, the workpiece is rotating while the tool head remains (relatively) stationary.

ÉLUCIDATION

 

I - Verbs related to shaping and machining / Verbes liés au formage et à l'usinage

 

par. 1

 
to forge (tr) forger
to cast (tr) (cast, cast) mouler
   

par. 3

 
to saw (tr) (sawed, sawn) scier
to cut (tr) (cut, cut) couper ; tailler
to drill (tr) percer
to grind (tr) (ground, ground) rectifier
to turn (tr) tourner
to mill (tr) fraiser
   

par. 5

 
to shape (tr) former, façonner
   

II - Other verbs encountered in the text / Autres verbes présents dans le texte

 

par. 1

 
to be divided (into) se diviser (en), se répartir (en)
to provide (tr) (to) procurer (à), fournir (à)
to be performed (by) être effectué (par)
   

par. 2

 
to form (tr) former, constituer
to define (tr) définir
to produce (tr) produire, fabriquer
   

par. 3

 
to deal (with) (dealt, dealt) traiter (de)
to be removed (from) être retiré (de), être enlevé (de)
   

par. 4

 
to process (tr) travailler
to be used for + gérondif (forme en -ing) servir à + inf.
to cut away (material) (cut, cut) enlever, retirer (de la matière)
to feed (tr) (fed, fed) (past) faire avancer (sous), faire passer (sous)
to operate (intr) opérer, travailler
   

par. 5

 
to remain (intr) demeurer, rester
moving (adj.) en mouvement, mobile
 

III - Remaining Vocabulary / Vocabulaire restant

 

Titre et par. 1

 
manufacturing process (pl. processes) procédé de fabrication
broadly (adv.) grosso modo, en gros
the former (adj. subst. pl.) (s'oppose habituellement à the latter) les premiers (c.-à-d. les procédés du premier groupe)
shape forme
size taille, dimensions (pl.), cotes (pl.)
the material le matériau, la matière (d'œuvre)
tighter (compar. de tight) plus strict, plus serré
control maîtrise
so called (ac) ce qu'on appelle, (le) dit / (la)dite
machine tool machine-outil
   

par. 2

 
basis base
as such en tant que tel(s) / telle(s), à ce titre
precision manufacturing fabrication de précision
nearly (adv.) presque, quasiment
be it... que ce soit...
household appliance appareil ménager
computer ordinateur
solar panel panneau solaire
wind turbine éolienne
to be fundamental (to) être d'une importance fondamentale (pour)
   

par. 3

 
stationary stationnaire, fixe
operating machine machine d'exploitation
metal part pièce métallique
mostly (adv.) pour la plupart
substractive technology technique soustractive
gradually (adv.) progressivement
workpiece pièce à usiner
specialized machine tools machines-outils spéciales
lathe tour (la machine)
   

par. 4

 
the mechanical manufacturing industry les industries mécaniques (pl.)
rotating (adj.) rotatif
(tool) head tête (d'outil)
   

par. 5

 
while (conj. de comparaison marquant la simultanéité) tandis que, alors que
 

EXPLOITATION

 
IV - Find out, in the text, the English verbal nouns corresponding to the following French words / Rechercher dans le texte les noms verbaux anglais (noms en -ing) correspondant aux termes français suivants :
   
1/ coupe  
2/ forgeage  
3/ formage  
4/ fraisage  
5/ moulage  
6/ perçage  
7/ polissage  
8/ rectifiage / rectification  
9/ sciage  
10/ tournage  
 
V - Translate the following enumerations, taking into account the suggested word order / Traduire les énumérations suivantes en tenant compte de l'ordre de traduction indiqué.
   
1/ basic shape and size
(avec en 1/ shape, en 2/ size; en 3/ basic)
 
   
2/ final shape and size
(avec en 1/ shape, en 2/ size; en 3/ final)
 
   
3/ dimension and surface characteristics
(avec en 1/ characteristics, en 2/ dimension, en 3/ surface)
 
   
4/ sawing and cutting machines
(avec en 1/ machines, en 2/ sawing, en 3/ cutting)
 
   
5/ grinding, cutting and polishing heads
(avec en 1/ heads, en 2/ grinding, en 3/ cutting , en 4/ polishing)
 
   
VI - Translate the following word sequence, taking into account the suggested word order / Traduire l'empilement suivant en tenant compte de l'ordre de traduction indiqué.
 
par. 4  
(the) most common metal shaping tools
(avec en 1/ tools, en 2/ metal shaping, en 3/ most common
 
   

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© Christian Lassure - EFT

Le 20 mai 2015 / May 20th, 2015

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